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New automotive electronics system components solutions

Date:2012年6月27日 10:20

Future automotive electronic systems, with the increase of safety, energy conservation, environmental protection, comfort and entertainment needs, related components and peripheral products shipped to sustained and rapid growth. Many design challenges in the field of automotive electronics components from the level began to consider solutions. Around this topic, the introduction of new sensors, protection devices, high voltage connector in the vehicle dynamic control, security systems, communications, entertainment, charge and discharge system and other aspects of the application.
Automotive electronics technology upgrade speed and other applications such as industrial control, medical compared quite fast, which has many causes. First automotive electronics and people's daily life is closely related to these countries to cars, car especially in Europe and the United States as a necessity, almost the only option for most people travel daily. Emerging markets such as China, India, rapid auto market growth, according to the latest reports, the the Shenzhen car ownership has just exceeded 1.7 million, the highest density of motor vehicles in mainland cities. As can be seen the demand for more and more families have a car, so as to promote the application and development of a wide range of automotive electronic technology.
According to isuppli survey shows, China's auto electronics sales in 2012 to grow to $ 20.6 billion from $ 16 billion in 2009. U.S. automotive electronics market in 2012 will be $ 20.5 billion, when the first position will give the Chinese.

The car has multiple subsystems, constitute very complex. Each subsystem can not be separated from a large number of automobile electronic products - of course, not the same number of different levels of car use automotive electronics. For example, the Chinese market mainstream automotive electronic system is not too complex, high degree of intelligence. These systems mainly focus on steering, driver assistance and occupant passive protection, brake and control systems as well as comfort and convenience.
With the upgrade of the market, the future of automotive electronics application focus will also be faced with change, energy systems, security systems, collision avoidance, steer-control systems, smart sensors and actuators, the integrated automotive electrical and electronic systems and thermal comfort systems will play a more important role.
Below, we analyze these emerging demand for components market brought opportunities and challenges.
    
Components in automotive safety systems
Safety is the first element of the automotive system design to consider. The new traffic safety inseparable from the engine management system, sensors as one of the devices for car usage, security systems are also a large number of applications.
Aspects of traffic safety, timely detection engine temperature is very important. In detection at the same time, you must also ensure that the reliability and service life. TDK's latest sensor weighs only 50% of the traditional metal structure, but at the same time safeguard the temperature detection accuracy, shockproof performance and lifetime, has also been significantly improved. The plastic casing of the top of the sensor can ensure excellent heat conductivity, thus optimizing the reaction time and accuracy, is conducive to the to measure vehicle oil temperature and coolant temperature. Another reaction, to adapt to a wide range of the product features.
Routine operations such as start and stop, the car will be subject to electrical interference and high-frequency impact and cause interference. Conduction through the wiring system, eventually coupled to the vehicle electronic equipment or radiation interference. Sources of interference include start system, AC motor, load switch, switch jitter as well as load-dump "(ie, the DC motor running off the power, the resulting voltage).
The most destructive in these surge "Load Dump", occurred in the engine is running, disconnect the battery when the AC motor is to charge the battery. The transient amplitude of the voltage generated depends on the size to disconnect the connection when the rotational speed of the AC motor and a field excitation. This surge process may last for a few hundred milliseconds, generate more than 100V voltage, potentially fatal impact on the semiconductor circuit. Once the electronic circuit is damaged, it may cause great risks to safety.
PPTC protection device is a resettable polymeric positive temperature coefficient devices, has been applied to the power supply DC output of overload and short circuit protection. Tyco Electronics Raychem PolySwitch products for power, the the RXE input / output interface to provide protection, but also to achieve overheating, motor stall protection.
In addition to the PPTC device MOSFET can also play a similar protection. However, MOSFET, in addition to the high-frequency performance, high input impedance, a small drive power, excellent thermal stability, etc., but also the power components more in line with the minimum cost of the system, in order to achieve superior fault self-protection system. Therefore, most of the designers turned MOSFET power components have a protective effect.
Application of semiconductor components in-car entertainment systems
Infotainment devices are also easily damaged because of the high transient voltages, including it in the working environment and surrounding equipment generates an electrostatic discharge (ESD) pulse. Often use the ESD protection devices, metal oxide varistor (MOV) and zener diode to protect automotive electronics equipment, such as antenna, backlight heater, battery, buttons, circuit board printed line, CD / DVD player, data cable port, a hard disk drive, and an input / output port and a touch screen.
Car charging portable devices on the over-current protection, the Tyco Electronics PolyZen devices to meet the protection needs. Such a device when used in conjunction with the protection device similar to a zener diode having a synergistic role in protection, and be able to withstand the very high power fault situation.
The car's high-speed input / output port requires the use of a small capacitance ESD protection devices, try to keep the signal quality does not decline. Optional devices should be suitable for high-speed data transmission line and a radio frequency data lines, to be able to withstand countless times ESD transient voltage.
PPTC circuit protection device in a car infotainment system as has been widely adopted. As a practical, cost-effective solution, has played the role of overcurrent and overheat protection. GPS, DVD, radio and automotive communications and information systems (telematics) board, often use it to limit the current.
New energy vehicles to lead the high-voltage connector trend
The rapid development of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicle market will lead to a large number of high-voltage connector applications, these applications are innovative, eye-catching. Different car manufacturers are trying different methods to achieve low-emission or zero emission target, which will further improve supplier of connector. These requirements have one thing in common, that is, to meet the different levels of security and personal protection requirements, continue to lower costs, reduce weight and volume. At the same time, manufacturers will not give up modern consumers expect high reliability and durability.
Connector manufacturer, FCI a powerful competitiveness of electric cars and hybrid vehicles on the market. New the launch of Power.S3 series product is specifically designed for the new generation of rechargeable battery-powered plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles.
The use of large-capacity lithium battery electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle design diversity to choose one thing in common. Lithium battery working voltage range of 400 ~ 600V. This is at least 10 times more than conventional cars standard 14V lead-acid battery, the FCI connector company has developed a full range of solutions for application specific connector and charging plug.
These new connectors and charging plug many major issues need to be addressed. Wherein, first and foremost is the safety problem, because a new connector and a charging plug of the operating voltage range of 400 ~ 600V, the operating current range of up to 50 ~ 300A even higher. Taking into account the needs of operatives in the entire life cycle of the car will inevitably contact with the engine compartment, high standards of protection against electric shock is obvious. In addition, in such a high power, electromagnetic interference is another important issue. Connector unplugged and arcing, which would seriously endanger the electrical connections and electronic equipment, and may cause the car to burn.
With the emergence of large-capacity lithium battery, in some cases, lead to a dangerous failure modes. In addition, how to reduce the weight and cost of the battery is still a dilemma: on the one hand, to increase the mileage range of the electric vehicles and battery capacity means that the weight of each component should alleviate; the other hand, the new generation of electric vehicles firmly positioned at the mass market, the economy also plays a very important role. Only the cost of the battery may be up to several thousand euros, therefore, reduce the car configuration cost pressure is even greater.
In order to meet this this all the challenges, of FCI connector Power.S3 series of new connector and charging plug products in high power operation, cost competitiveness, durability, compactness, ergonomics and safety of personnel optimization design. FCI connector company REMA (REMA is a manufacturer of electric forklifts professional manufacturer of plugs and sockets) to work together, the launch of the first fruits of cooperation is a single-phase charging plugs and sockets 16/32A, in line with SAE J1772 and IEC62192-1 Standard: "slow charge" electric vehicle / hybrid electric vehicle applications international Common Criteria. These products are used in public charging stations or at home on the car rechargeable lithium battery, the charging time is 4 ~~ 8h.
The automotive sector is still a pioneering system to ensure trouble-free operation is not easy for the engineers. Such simulation and analysis of the performance for the electric car and a hybrid vehicle designers is essential. Are involved in these new car design and manufacturing company in a rapid increase in the learning phase, the need for product performance in practical applications, there are many things to learn.
    
Vehicle network system circuit protection programs
Vehicle network systems will play an increasingly important role. New types of passenger cars, trucks, buses and even motorcycles have become mobile networks are connected together, the many features and functions, such as built-in control, removable media and wireless networks. Infotainment, telematics, security control, the application must be made using several existing network standards, including LIN, CAN, FlexRay is the most important of the three standards.
LIN topology circuit protection measures
LIN bus topology is typically used to connect switches, sensors and actuators to the vehicle network LIN bus standard requirements when the LIN bus line short-circuit voltage is less than 26.5V or ground, the network should be back to normal work. Must meet the minimum discharge voltage level ± 2kV ESD surge resistor on the physical layer according to the requirements of IEC61000-4-2. However, the ECU connector may appear on the the ± 8kV level is reached.
The figure below shows coordinated circuit protection, shows a setting in the power input resettable PolySwitch device to the mains input protection the ECU and LIN node connectors from the current circumstances of the injury, as well as a MLV (multi-voltage sensitive resistor) to provide the required high current handling and energy absorption over voltage protection for vehicle network applications.
Needed by overcurrent protection on the failure or overload current limit. Also need to limit voltage spikes through the circuit protection device or in a stable over-voltage condition.

The CAN topology circuit protection measures
CAN bus transceiver allows the bus supply voltage of up to + /-80V DC. However, the surge of the load rejection will generate higher transient than under the ISO-7637-2 standard (maximum 86.5V) may damage the transceiver. The transceiver operating current vary due to different suppliers.
The following figure shows the resettable PolySwitch devices and MOV (metal oxide voltage sensitive resistor) in the power input of the application in order to avoid abnormal surge current and voltage of the center due to the vehicle power supply system damage.

FlexRay topology circuit protection measures
The FlexRay protocol designed for by-wire applications are designed, such as wire, brake-by-wire steering wheel. The-wire network to support both synchronous and asynchronous data transfer, the data transfer rate of about 10Mb / s, with a time-triggered and event-triggered behavior, redundant bits and fault-tolerant features.
This structure supports a "beam" of the two nodes to 64 nodes, and its main function is dependent on the two types of processor-ECU and the active star. The FlexRay communication through a common bus or a star connection between the ECU. The FlexRay bus input element must be avoided between the total lines and the system power supply voltage or ground potential short circuit phenomenon.
The following diagram program utilizing a PolySwitch device overcurrent protection.

Car lighting circuit protection programs
Car lighting systems require up to 55A peak surge current. One of the ideal solution for control of the vehicle lighting is a high-pressure side pre-FET drives and power FET combination.
A pre-FET driver is used to control the system in the four different load. This combination can be better controlled by the temperature coefficient of the resistive load. Typically, the load is connected to the low voltage side, the power FET configuration in the completion of the high-pressure side, and that the load is powered. Each channel can be controlled by a parallel input signal from the microcontroller or serial programming registers. In a parallel structure, a general-purpose I / O, or based on the output of the timer is used to control the load current.
The gate driver output is usually a constant current source, and the suction to the output terminal to control the charging and discharging characteristics of the FET gate capacitance. An external resistor in series with the output limit the movements of the FET switch conversion. The switch limit this effect the conversion rate to control, but can also help to reduce the electromagnetic interference will increase (increase switching losses and power consumption) occurred during the rapid current changes. These outputs internal control at 17V maximum output voltage to protect the external FET gate exempt from source breakdown damage. Compared with an integrated solution, you can configure a combination of pre-FET driver and power FET to prevent the application of dynamic and static fault.
    
Car lighting circuit fault detection and control program
In all the systems fault detection is essential. "Open" state short-circuit load and over-current phenomenon Close a channel state open load fault detection, and will allow the system to be able to react correctly. This test also can be faulty channel isolated, to avoid affecting the normal channels, especially when related to the thermal interaction problems.
Detects an overcurrent state "off" devices or activate automatic retry will be low duty cycle and turn on the FET option is set, you can FET protection. This allows the system to continue to check whether the fault has been excluded, and will not damage the FET.
Monitor open load fault system provides load integrity information in the "off" state. When the switch is fully in the "off" state, by monitoring the power supply voltage of the external power FET, it is possible to achieve open load fault detection for each channel.
Similarly, in order to prevent an error during the fault reporting switching converter, a deglitch filter during the power converter is activated, in order to shield the fault. The shield this deglitch time is programmed to control the implementation of compensation for all conversion rates. If the open load occurred after switching converter, then make the the failure previously correct action to determine the effective time is longer than the fault mask time. Correct action is to make the field effect transistor is maintained in the "off" state.
A high pressure side of the pre-FET drive and power FET combination is widely used for load control, such as: vehicle-mounted electronic incandescent bulbs, relays, solenoids, and the transmission solenoid, etc., may also be applied to those requirements through the string bus communication line or parallel input control to implement load control in industrial and commercial applications. This ability, every power FET and thermal interactions isolated single-channel short circuit or thermal shutdown fault does not interrupt other load control channel function is very good.
Solution of a semiconductor device in the hybrid vehicle (HEV)
The challenges brought about by the high voltage the hybrid must solve the problem. A few years ago, most are 55V to 60V MOSFET power devices in the car for an automotive vehicle driveline. Are in automobiles, including hybrid vehicles, 20V to 600V of the power devices. Power steering and braking of such applications, the development engineers are looking for a high-performance low-voltage channel MOSFET with low on-resistance, in order to reduce the power consumption of the car.
Mild, full and plug-in HEV is needed between 600V to 1,200 V high voltage electronic systems, which make the design more challenging. In addition to the need to up to 600V to 1,200 V, a high voltage capability, it is also needed to drive the switch of the inverter and the DC / DC converter, the current density unprecedented. Power IC to face such a high power, high voltage and high energy, it is necessary to rugged reliability and security as the main conditions. The IR's Hauenstein Dr. has said that the protective function of the motor driver IC is very important, serious fault and short circuit in the HEV traction motor, eliminating the need for microcontroller interactive. Because this problem HEV inverter switch high current, high voltage IGBT is very common. '
IR's the HEV program series also include a drive with very low EMI and optimize the performance of the switch and the switch. For example, the latest DirectFET MOSFET without bond wires, and eliminate most of the parasitic inductance, and have the smallest package resistance, they were able to provide the best performance of the switch. Energy efficiency in addition to the industry-leading low-resistance, superior switching performance and enhanced temperature (for example, bilateral cooling), so this is very advanced no bond wires chip size package design significantly reduce the volume, especially suitable for high power requirements or HEVDC / DC converter fast switching applications.
IGBT and power MOSFET as the core technology of hybrid cars, to attract power semiconductor manufacturers have targeted this huge market. ISuppli had predicted the automotive IGBT market is expected to grow 17.2% compound annual growth rate of high-speed development, among the first automotive power management devices, MOSFET market growth ranking followed. Although hybrid vehicles in the next few years will be just occupied vehicle market, hybrid inverter and DC / DC centralized demand will form a huge market for IGBT and power MOSFET.
China's automotive electronics market and development opportunities
Safety, energy conservation, environmental protection, as well as intelligence and information technology, the development trend of the future of the automobile. China's auto market makes car entertainment systems to rapid development, and this development is the exponential growth of the state's growth in the current market size. The market research showed that, overall vehicle production in China is very large, the number of car entertainment system is also considerable, mainly provide OEM support services.
Car to use computers as a platform to reach the vehicle communication, navigation, entertainment, network control, integrated multimedia information system designed for the integration of the regional market trends and other functions. The survey analysis shows that China's market development prospects exist in the automotive electronics market. The car driving safety small car entertainment navigation information system control, body electronics control, will become the main direction of the development of China's auto electronics market.
 

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